Archive for the ‘what is?’ Category

What is Godel’s Theorem?

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Godel’s theorem may be demonstrated using arguments having an information-theoretic flavor. In such an approach it is possible to argue that if a theorem contains more information than a given set of axioms, then it is impossible for the theorem to be derived from the axioms. In contrast with the traditional proof based on the paradox of the liar, this new viewpoint suggests that the incompleteness phenomenon discovered by Godel is natural and widespread rather than pathological and unusual.

.:cs.auckland.ac.nz->

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Posted: January 16th, 2011
at 1:24pm by Koookiecrumbles


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What is Moore’s Law of Internet Latency?

As long as Internet users do not pay for the absolute (integrated over time) amount of data bandwidth which they consume (bytes per month), Internet serviceAquality (latency) will continue to be variable and often poor. via

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Posted: January 3rd, 2011
at 5:16pm by Koookiecrumbles


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What is Enlightenment?

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Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one’s understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another.ASapere Aude! [dare to know] "Have courage to use your own understanding!"-that is the motto of enlightenment.

Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a proportion of men, long after nature has released them from alien guidance (natura-liter maiorennes), nonetheless gladly remain in lifelong immaturity, and why it is so easy for others to establish themselves as their guardians. It is so easy to be immature. If I have a book to serve as my understanding, a pastor to serve as my conscience, a physician to determine my diet for me, and so on, I need not exert myself at all. I need not think, if only I can pay: others will readily undertake the irksome work for me. The guardians who have so benevolently taken over the supervision of men have carefully seen to it that the far greatest part of them (including the entire fair sex) regard taking the step to maturity as very dangerous, not to mention difficult. Having first made their domestic livestock dumb, and having carefully made sure that these docile creatures will not take a single step without the go-cart to which they are harnessed, these guardians then show them the danger that threatens them, should they attempt to walk alone. Now this danger is not actually so great, for after falling a few times they would in the end certainly learn to walk; but an example of this kind makes men timid and usually frightens them out of all further attempts.

Thus, it is difficult for any individual man to work himself out of the immaturity that has all but become his nature. He has even become fond of this state and for the time being is actually incapable of using his own understanding, for no one has ever allowed him to attempt it. Rules and formulas, those mechanical aids to the rational use, or rather misuse, of his natural gifts, are the shackles of a permanent immaturity. Whoever threw them off would still make only an uncertain leap over the smallest ditch, since he is unaccustomed to this kind of free movement. Consequently, only a few have succeeded, by cultivating their own minds, in freeing themselves from immaturity and pursuing a secure course.

.:english.upenn.edu->

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Posted: January 2nd, 2011
at 10:22pm by Koookiecrumbles


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What is Service-Craft?

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Over the last century, the arc of development of design practice has been from objects, to systems, to communities of systems. Design practice has moved from a focus on hand-craft and form, through an increased focus on meaning and structure, to an increasing focus on interaction and servicesawhat we call "service-craft."

Service-craft includes the design, management, and ongoing development of service systems, the connected touch-points of service delivery. Touch-points are where participants interact with service providers or machines, either in person or through communications networks. For an airline, its website, check-in kiosk, flight attendants, and seats are some of many touch-points. Shelly Evenson describes service as "the experience participants have as they move through a series of touch-points."

.:dubberly.com->

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Posted: December 16th, 2010
at 6:29pm by Koookiecrumbles


Categories: design,what is?

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What is Appreciative Inquiry?

AI is a collaborative approach to organizational improvement and change that works by engaging groups in identifying and studying what's working well, and applying these positive resources to generate energy and new ideas for resolving complex challenges.

.:parttimembadegree.com->

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Posted: November 20th, 2010
at 5:04pm by Koookiecrumbles


Categories: business,development,what is?

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What is OpenCyc?

OpenCyc is the open source version of the Cyc technology, the world’s largest and most complete general knowledge base and commonsense reasoning engine. OpenCyc can be used as the basis of a wide variety of intelligent applications such as: Arapid development of an ontology in a vertical area, email prioritizing, routing, summarization, annotating, expert systems and games.

.:opencyc.org->

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Posted: November 17th, 2010
at 4:10pm by Koookiecrumbles


Categories: what is?,open source

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What is the Byzantine General's Problem?

The Byzantine General's Problem is one of many in the field of agreement protocols. In 1982, Leslie Lamport described this problem in a paper written with Marshall Pease and Robert Shostak. Lamport framed his paper around a story problem after observing what he felt was an inordinate amount of attention received by Dijkstra's Dining Philosophers problem.

This problem is built around an imaginary General who makes a decision to attack or retreat, and must communicate the decision to his lieutenants. A given number of these actors are traitors (possibly including the General.) Traitors cannot be relied upon to properly communicate orders; worse yet, they may actively alter messages in an attempt to subvert the process.

When we're not dwelling in storybook land, the generals are collectively known asAprocesses, the general who initiates the order is theAsource process, and the orders sent to the other processes areAmessages. Traitorous generals and lieutenants areAfaulty processes, and loyal generals and lieutenants areAcorrect processes. The order to retreat or attack is a message with a single bit of information: a one or a zero.

In general, a solution to an agreement problem must pass three tests:Atermination,Aagreement, andAvalidity. As applied to the Byzantine General's problem, these three tests are:

-A solution has to guarantee that all correct processes eventually reach a decision regarding the value of the order they have been given.
-All correct processes have to decide on the same value of the order they have been given.
-If the source process is a correct process, all processes have to decide on the value that was original given by the source process.

    .:marknelson.us->

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    Posted: November 11th, 2010
    at 1:09pm by Koookiecrumbles


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    What is Diwali?

    .:pixelonomics.com->

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    Posted: November 6th, 2010
    at 4:38pm by Koookiecrumbles


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    What are the Maunsell Sea Forts?

    During the Second World War, three anti-aircraft forts were built in 1941-42 to protect the Thames Estuary, designed by Mr. G. A. Maunsell. Four other larger structures were built for the Navy.

    The Army forts were different in design from the Navy platforms as each had seven towers linked together by walkways. Six of the towers were armed, the seventh held the searchlights and they were manned by a complement of 120. They were built in 1942 at Shivering Sands, Red Sands and Great Nore. Each 300 tonne tower was preconstructed before being towed out to sea, sunk into position and then connected to the next tower.

    .:ecastles.co.uk->

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    Posted: October 14th, 2010
    at 8:43am by Koookiecrumbles


    Categories: what is?

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